Using Sawtooth on AWS


The procedures in this section require an existing Amazon Web Services (AWS) account. If you don’t have one yet, Amazon provides free accounts so you can demo the platform. Click here to sign up.

This document guides you through the process of setting up Hyperledger Sawtooth for application development using AWS, introduces some of the basic Sawtooth concepts necessary for application development, and walks through performing the following tasks:

  • Launching and connecting to an EC2 instance running Sawtooth
  • Starting a Sawtooth validator and related components
  • Submitting transactions to the REST API
  • Viewing blocks, transactions, and state with Sawtooth commands

Upon completion of this section, you will be prepared for subsequent sections that describe application development topics, such as implementing business logic with transaction families and writing clients which use Sawtooth’s REST API.

Overview of Sawtooth Components

A running Sawtooth network consists of the following applications or processes:

Sawtooth components

This diagram represents a simple network with just two validators and two transaction processors. The second validator’s transaction processors are not depicted.

Launching a Sawtooth Instance

Launch your instance from the Sawtooth product page on the AWS Marketplace. Detailed instructions for Launching an AWS Marketplace Instance can be found here.


The default security group with recommended settings for Sawtooth is configured to only allow ssh traffic inbound.

  • If you’d like to attach a transaction processor remotely, you’ll need to add an inbound rule allowing TCP traffic on port 4004.
  • If you’d like to access the REST API remotely, you’ll need to add an inbound rule allowing TCP traffic on port 8008.

Please see Amazon’s Security Groups documentation for assistance with editing security group rules.

Logging In to the Sawtooth Instance

Follow the Amazon guide Connect to Your Linux Instance to log in to the instance you just launched. Use the username ubuntu when connecting.

Once you’ve successfully logged in, continue to the next section.

Using Sawtooth Commands

Creating and Submitting Transactions with intkey

The intkey command is provided to create sample transactions of the intkey (IntegerKey) transaction type for testing purposes. Using it you will be able to prepare batches of intkey transactions that set a few keys to random values, then randomly inc (increment) and dec (decrement) those values. These batches will be saved locally, and then can then be submitted to the validator.

To use, run the following commands:

$ intkey create_batch --count 10 --key-count 5
Writing to batches.intkey...
$ intkey load
batches: 11 batch/sec: 141.7800162868952

This output doesn’t tell us much, so let’s take a look at the validator and intkey logs in /var/log/sawtooth.

The validator logs show that state is being updated and a new block has been published.

The IntegerKey logs show values being incremented and decremented.


Some log file names contain a string to make the file names unique. The file names on your system may be different than the examples below.

$ tail -10 /var/log/sawtooth/validator-d1cf3f4ffff81f50-debug.log
[20:52:07.835 [Thread-8] tp_state_handlers DEBUG] SET: ['1cf1263d536e5febddb1d9804041192faea99c5cd784788a1e3e444d2db93ba60baa08']
[20:52:07.836 [Thread-8] interconnect DEBUG] ServerThread sending TP_STATE_SET_RESPONSE to b'ae98c3726f9743c4'
[20:52:07.837 [InterconnectThread-1] interconnect DEBUG] ServerThread receiving TP_PROCESS_RESPONSE message: 69 bytes
[20:52:07.837 [InterconnectThread-1] interconnect DEBUG] message round trip: TP_PROCESS_RESPONSE 0.006524801254272461
[20:52:07.843 [Thread-23] chain INFO] on_block_validated: a2ea3764(5, S:8e87d579, P:62f7c965)
[20:52:07.844 [Thread-23] chain INFO] Chain head updated to: a2ea3764(5, S:8e87d579, P:62f7c965)
[20:52:07.844 [Thread-23] publisher INFO] Now building on top of block: a2ea3764(5, S:8e87d579, P:62f7c965)
[20:52:07.845 [Thread-23] chain DEBUG] Verify descendant blocks: a2ea3764(5, S:8e87d579, P:62f7c965) ([])
[20:52:07.845 [Thread-23] state_delta_processor DEBUG] Publishing state delta from a2ea3764(5, S:8e87d579, P:62f7c965)
[20:52:07.846 [Thread-23] chain INFO] Finished block validation of: a2ea3764(5, S:8e87d579, P:62f7c965)

$ tail -10 /var/log/sawtooth/intkey-ae98c3726f9743c4-debug.log
[20:52:07.803 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
[20:52:07.805 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] Decrementing "zhUyYM" by 6
[20:52:07.810 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
[20:52:07.812 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] Incrementing "ARqIDG" by 8
[20:52:07.817 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
[20:52:07.820 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] Decrementing "FxVRRq" by 6
[20:52:07.824 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
[20:52:07.827 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] Incrementing "hTnaor" by 9
[20:52:07.832 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
[20:52:07.834 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] Incrementing "ARqIDG" by 6

Submitting Transactions with sawtooth batch submit

You can also submit transactions, including intkey transactions, with the sawtooth batch submit command.

For example, submit the transactions in the file batches.intkey generated above with this command:

$ sawtooth batch submit -f batches.intkey

Viewing the Block Chain

You can view the blocks stored in the blockchain using the sawtooth block command.


The sawtooth command provides help for all subcommands. For example, to get help for the block subcommand, enter the command sawtooth block -h.

Viewing the List of Blocks

Enter the command sawtooth block list to view the blocks stored by the state:

$ sawtooth block list

The output of the command will be similar to this:

8    22e79778855768ea380537fb13ad210b84ca5dd1cdd555db7792a9d029113b0a183d5d71cc5558e04d10a9a9d49031de6e86d6a7ddb25325392d15bb7ccfd5b7  2     8     02a0e049...
7    c84346f5e18c6ce29f1b3e6e31534da7cd538533457768f86a267053ddf73c4f1139c9055be283dfe085c94557de24726191eee9996d4192d21fa6acb0b29152  2     20    02a0e049...
6    efc0d6175b6329ac5d0814546190976bc6c4e18bd0630824c91e9826f93c7735371f4565a8e84c706737d360873fac383ab1cf289f9bf640b92c570cb1ba1875  2     27    02a0e049...
5    840c0ef13023f93e853a4555e5b46e761fc822d4e2d9131581fdabe5cb85f13e2fb45a0afd5f5529fbde5216d22a88dddec4b29eeca5ac7a7b1b1813fcc1399a  2     16    02a0e049...
4    4d6e0467431a409185e102301b8bdcbdb9a2b177de99ae139315d9b0fe5e27aa3bd43bda6b168f3ac8f45e84b069292ddc38ec6a1848df16f92cd35c5bd6e6c9  2     20    02a0e049...
3    9743e39eadf20e922e242f607d847445aba18dacdf03170bf71e427046a605744c84d9cb7d440d257c21d11e4da47e535ba7525afcbbc037da226db48a18f4a8  2     22    02a0e049...
2    6d7e641232649da9b3c23413a31db09ebec7c66f8207a39c6dfcb21392b033163500d367f8592b476e0b9c1e621d6c14e8c0546a7377d9093fb860a00c1ce2d3  2     38    02a0e049...
1    7252a5ab3440ee332aef5830b132cf9dc3883180fb086b2a50f62bf7c6c8ff08311b8009da3b3f6e38d3cfac1b3ac4cfd9a864d6a053c8b27df63d1c730469b3  2     120   02a0e049...
0    8821a997796f3e38a28dbb8e418ed5cbdd60b8a2e013edd20bca7ebf9a58f1302740374d98db76137e48b41dc404deda40ca4d2303a349133991513d0fec4074  0     0     02a0e049...

Viewing a Particular Block

From the output generated by the sawtooth block list command, copy the id of a block you want to get more info about, then paste it in place of {BLOCK_ID} in the sawtooth block show command:

$ sawtooth block show {BLOCK_ID}

The output of this command includes all data stored under that block, and can be quite long. It should look something like this:

- header:
    signer_public_key: 0276023d4f7323103db8d8683a4b7bc1eae1f66fbbf79c20a51185f589e2d304ce
    - 24b168aaf5ea4a76a6c316924a1c26df0878908682ea5740dd70814e7c400d56354dee788191be8e28393c70398906fb467fac8db6279e90e4e61619589d42bf
  header_signature: a93731646a8fd2bce03b3a17bc2cb3192d8597da93ce735950dccbf0e3cf0b005468fadb94732e013be0bc2afb320be159b452cf835b35870db5fa953220fb35
  - header:
      batcher_public_key: 0276023d4f7323103db8d8683a4b7bc1eae1f66fbbf79c20a51185f589e2d304ce
      dependencies: []
      family_name: sawtooth_settings
      family_version: '1.0'
      - 000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8b79606fb3afea5bdab274474a6aa82c1c0cbf0fbcaf64c0b
      - 000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8b79606fb3afea5bdab274474a6aa82c12840f169a04216b7
      - 000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8b79606fb3afea5bdab274474a6aa82c1918142591ba4e8a7
      - 000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8f82af32160bc531176b5001cb05e10bce3b0c44298fc1c14
      nonce: ''
      - 000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8b79606fb3afea5bdab274474a6aa82c1c0cbf0fbcaf64c0b
      - 000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8f82af32160bc531176b5001cb05e10bce3b0c44298fc1c14
      payload_sha512: 944b6b55e831a2ba37261d904b14b4e729399e4a7c41bd22fcb09c46f0b3821cd41750e38640e33f79b6b5745a20225a1f5427bd5085f3800c166bbb7fb899e8
      signer_public_key: 0276023d4f7323103db8d8683a4b7bc1eae1f66fbbf79c20a51185f589e2d304ce
    header_signature: 24b168aaf5ea4a76a6c316924a1c26df0878908682ea5740dd70814e7c400d56354dee788191be8e28393c70398906fb467fac8db6279e90e4e61619589d42bf
    payload: EtwBCidzYXd0b290aC52YWxpZGF0b3IudHJhbnNhY3Rpb25fZmFtaWxpZXMSngFbeyJmYW1pbHkiOiAiaW50a2V5IiwgInZlcnNpb24iOiAiMS4wIiwgImVuY29kaW5nIjogImFwcGxpY2F0aW9uL3Byb3RvYnVmIn0sIHsiZmFtaWx5Ijoic2F3dG9vdGhfY29uZmlnIiwgInZlcnNpb24iOiIxLjAiLCAiZW5jb2RpbmciOiJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbi9wcm90b2J1ZiJ9XRoQMTQ5NzQ0ODgzMy4zODI5Mw==
  - a93731646a8fd2bce03b3a17bc2cb3192d8597da93ce735950dccbf0e3cf0b005468fadb94732e013be0bc2afb320be159b452cf835b35870db5fa953220fb35
  block_num: 3
  consensus: RGV2bW9kZQ==
  previous_block_id: 042f08e1ff49bbf16914a53dc9056fb6e522ca0e2cff872547eac9555c1de2a6200e67fb9daae6dfb90f02bef6a9088e94e5bdece04f622bce67ccecd678d56e
  signer_public_key: 033fbed13b51eafaca8d1a27abc0d4daf14aab8c0cbc1bb4735c01ff80d6581c52
  state_root_hash: 5d5ea37cbbf8fe793b6ea4c1ba6738f5eee8fc4c73cdca797736f5afeb41fbef
header_signature: ff4f6705bf57e2a1498dc1b649cc9b6a4da2cc8367f1b70c02bc6e7f648a28b53b5f6ad7c2aa639673d873959f5d3fcc11129858ecfcb4d22c79b6845f96c5e3

Viewing Global State

Viewing List of Nodes (Addresses)

Use the command sawtooth state list to list the nodes in the Merkle tree:

$ sawtooth state list

The output of the command will be similar to this truncated list:

ADDRESS                                                                                                                                SIZE DATA
1cf126ddb507c936e4ee2ed07aa253c2f4e7487af3a0425f0dc7321f94be02950a081ab7058bf046c788dbaf0f10a980763e023cde0ee282585b9855e6e5f3715bf1fe 11   b'\xa1fcCTdcH\x...
1cf1260cd1c2492b6e700d5ef65f136051251502e5d4579827dc303f7ed76ddb7185a19be0c6443503594c3734141d2bdcf5748a2d8c75541a8e568bae063983ea27b9 11   b'\xa1frdLONu\x...
1cf126ed7d0ac4f755be5dd040e2dfcd71c616e697943f542682a2feb14d5f146538c643b19bcfc8c4554c9012e56209f94efe580b6a94fb326be9bf5bc9e177d6af52 11   b'\xa1fAUZZqk\x...
1cf126c46ff13fcd55713bcfcf7b66eba515a51965e9afa8b4ff3743dc6713f4c40b4254df1a2265d64d58afa14a0051d3e38999704f6e25c80bed29ef9b80aee15c65 11   b'\xa1fLvUYLk\x...
1cf126c4b1b09ebf28775b4923e5273c4c01ba89b961e6a9984632612ec9b5af82a0f7c8fc1a44b9ae33bb88f4ed39b590d4774dc43c04c9a9bd89654bbee68c8166f0 13   b'\xa1fXHonWY\x...
1cf126e924a506fb2c4bb8d167d20f07d653de2447df2754de9eb61826176c7896205a17e363e457c36ccd2b7c124516a9b573d9a6142f031499b18c127df47798131a 13   b'\xa1foWZXEz\x...
1cf126c295a476acf935cd65909ed5ead2ec0168f3ee761dc6f37ea9558fc4e32b71504bf0ad56342a6671db82cb8682d64689838731da34c157fa045c236c97f1dd80 13   b'\xa1fadKGve\x...

Viewing Data at an Address

From the output generated by the sawtooth state list command, copy the address you want to view, then paste it in place of {STATE_ADDRESS} in the sawtooth state show command:

$ sawtooth state show {STATE_ADDRESS}

The output of the command will include both the bytes stored at that address, and the block id of the chain head the current state is tied to. It should look similar to this:

DATA: "b'\xa1fcCTdcH\x192B'"
HEAD: "0c4364c6d5181282a1c7653038ec9515cb0530c6bfcb46f16e79b77cb524491676638339e8ff8e3cc57155c6d920e6a4d1f53947a31dc02908bcf68a91315ad5"

Connecting To The REST API

Use curl to confirm that you can connect to the REST API from the host.

Enter the following command from a terminal window:

$ curl http://localhost:8008/blocks

Configuring the List of Transaction Families

Sawtooth provides a Settings transaction family that stores on-chain settings, along with a Settings family transaction processor written in Python.

One of the on-chain settings is the list of supported transaction families. The next step describes how to configure this setting with a single command.

Changing the Transaction Family Settings

In the example below, a JSON array is submitted to the sawset command, which creates and submits a batch of transactions containing the settings change.

The JSON array used tells the validator or validator network to accept transactions of the following types:

  • intkey (IntegerKey transaction family)
  • sawtooth_settings (Settings transaction family)

To create and submit the batch containing the new settings, enter the following commands at a Linux command-line prompt:

$ sawset proposal create sawtooth.validator.transaction_families='[{"family": "intkey", "version": "1.0"}, {"family":"sawtooth_settings", "version":"1.0"}]'

A TP_PROCESS_REQUEST message appears in the logging output of the validator, and output similar to the following appears in the validator-debug.log file:

[21:11:55.356 [Thread-9] tp_state_handlers DEBUG] GET: [('000000a87cb5eafdcca6a8cde0fb0dec1400c5ab274474a6aa82c12840f169a04216b7',b'\nl\n&\x12B03e3ccf73dd618ef1abe18da84d3cf5838a5d292d36ef8857a60b5ad04fd4ab517')]
[21:11:55.356 [Thread-9] interconnect DEBUG] ServerThread sending TP_STATE_GET_RESPONSE to b'afb61daaa87a4c70'
[21:11:55.362 [InterconnectThread-1] interconnect DEBUG] ServerThread receiving TP_STATE_GET_REQUEST message: 177 bytes
[21:11:55.371 [InterconnectThread-1] interconnect DEBUG] message round trip: TP_PROCESS_RESPONSE 0.021718978881835938
[21:11:55.373 [Thread-23] chain INFO] on_block_validated: 5da8c003(12, S:eb09cdf9, P:dab828cd)
[21:11:55.374 [Thread-23] chain INFO] Chain head updated to: 5da8c003(12, S:eb09cdf9, P:dab828cd)
[21:11:55.374 [Thread-23] publisher INFO] Now building on top of block: 5da8c003(12, S:eb09cdf9, P:dab828cd)
[21:11:55.375 [Thread-23] chain DEBUG] Verify descendant blocks: 5da8c003(12, S:eb09cdf9, P:dab828cd) ([])
[21:11:55.375 [Thread-23] state_delta_processor DEBUG] Publishing state delta from 5da8c003(12, S:eb09cdf9, P:dab828cd)
[21:11:55.376 [Thread-23] chain INFO] Finished block validation of: 5da8c003(12, S:eb09cdf9, P:dab828cd)

You can verify that the settings change was successfully applied by checking the output of sawtooth settings list:

$ sawtooth settings list 03e3ccf73dd618ef1abe18da84d3cf5838a5d292d36ef8857a60b5ad04fd4ab517
sawtooth.validator.transaction_families: [{"family": "intkey", "version": "1.0"}, {"family":"sawtooth_settings", "version":"1.0"} "...

Sawtooth Setup Service

The Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for Sawtooth has a systemd service that handles some environment setup steps such as generating keys and creating a genesis block so you can get started more quickly. If you’d like to learn more about how the typical startup process works, see Using Sawtooth on Ubuntu 16.04.

Resetting the Environment

You can use the following commands to reset the environment if you’re uncertain about the state or would simply like to start over. Removing the config-genesis.batch and restarting the sawtooth-setup service will clean up your validator, create a new genesis block and restart the sawtooth-validator service so you’re ready to build on a new chain.

$ sudo rm /var/lib/sawtooth/config-genesis.batch
$ sudo systemctl restart sawtooth-setup.service