Using Ubuntu for a Single Sawtooth Node

This procedure explains how to set up Hyperledger Sawtooth for application development on Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic). It shows you how to install Sawtooth on Ubuntu, then walks you through the following tasks:

  • Generating a user key

  • Generating a root key

  • Creating the genesis block

  • Starting the components: validator, consensus engine, REST API, and transaction processors

  • Checking the status of the REST API

  • Using Sawtooth commands to submit transactions, display block data, and view global state

  • Examining Sawtooth logs

  • Stopping Sawtooth and resetting the development environment

After completing this procedure, you will have the application development environment that is required for the other tutorials in this guide. The next tutorial introduces the XO transaction family by using the xo client commands to play a game of tic-tac-toe. The final set of tutorials describe how to use an SDK to create a transaction family that implements your application’s business logic.

About the Ubuntu Test Node Environment

This Ubuntu environment is a single Sawtooth node that is running a validator, a REST API, the Devmode consensus engine, and three transaction processors. The environment uses Devmode consensus and parallel transaction processing.

Ubuntu: Sawtooth application environment with one node

This environment introduces basic Sawtooth functionality with the IntegerKey and Settings transaction processors for the business logic and Sawtooth commands as a client. It also includes the XO transaction processor, which is used in later tutorials.

The IntegerKey and XO families are simple examples of a transaction family, but Settings is a reference implementation. In a production environment, you should always run a transaction processor that supports the Settings transaction family.

In this procedure, you will open seven terminal windows on your host system: one for each Sawtooth component and one to use for client commands.


This procedure starts the validator first, then the REST API, followed by the transaction processors. However, the start-up order is flexible. For example, you can start the transaction processors before starting the validator.


This Sawtooth development environment requires Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic).

Step 1: Install Sawtooth

The Sawtooth package repositories provide two types of Ubuntu packages: stable or nightly. We recommend using the stable repository.

  1. Open a terminal window on your host system. From this point on, this procedure refers to this window as the “validator terminal window”. In the following examples, the prompt user@validator$ shows the commands that must run in this window.

  2. Choose either the stable repository or the nightly repository.

    • To add the stable repository, run these commands:

      user@validator$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys 8AA7AF1F1091A5FD
      user@validator$ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64] bionic universe'
      user@validator$ sudo apt-get update
    • To use the nightly repository, run the following commands:


      Nightly builds have not gone through long-running network testing and could be out of sync with the documentation. We really do recommend the stable repository.

      user@validator$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys 44FC67F19B2466EA
      user@validator$ sudo apt-add-repository "deb bionic universe"
      user@validator$ sudo apt-get update
  3. Install the Sawtooth packages. Sawtooth consists of several Ubuntu packages that can be installed together using the sawtooth meta-package. Run the following command:

    user@validator$ sudo apt-get install -y sawtooth
  4. Install the Sawtooth Devmode consensus engine package. Run the following command:

    user@validator$ sudo apt-get install sawtooth-devmode-engine-rust
  5. Any time after installation, you can view the installed Sawtooth packages with the following command:

    user@validator$ dpkg -l '*sawtooth*'

Step 2: Generate a User Key

Generate your user key for Sawtooth, using the same terminal window as the previous step.

user@validator$ sawtooth keygen my_key
writing file: /home/yourname/.sawtooth/keys/my_key.priv
writing file: /home/yourname/.sawtooth/keys/


This command specifies my_key as the base name for the key files, to be consistent with the key name that is used in the example Docker and Kubernetes files. By default (when no key name is specified), the sawtooth keygen command uses your user name.

Step 3: Generate the Root Key for the Validator

Generate the key for the validator, which runs as root. Use the same terminal window as the previous step.

user@validator$ sudo sawadm keygen
writing file: /etc/sawtooth/keys/validator.priv
writing file: /etc/sawtooth/keys/

Step 4: Create the Genesis Block

Because this is a new network, you must create a genesis block (the first block on the distributed ledger). This step is done only for the first node on the network. Nodes that join an existing network do not create a genesis block.

The genesis block contains initial values that are necessary when a Sawtooth distributed ledger is created and used for the first time, including the keys for users who are authorized to set and change configuration settings.

Use the same terminal window as the previous step.

  1. Change to a writable directory such as /tmp.

    user@validator$ cd /tmp
  2. Create a batch with a settings proposal for the genesis block.

    user@validator$ sawset genesis --key $HOME/.sawtooth/keys/my_key.priv
    Generated config-genesis.batch

    This command authorizes you to set and change Sawtooth settings. The settings changes will take effect after the validator and Settings transaction processor have started.


    You must use the same key for the sawset proposal create command in the next step.

  3. Create another settings proposal to initialize the Devmode consensus engine settings. This command sets the consensus algorithm to Devmode.

    user@validator$ sawset proposal create \
    --key $HOME/.sawtooth/keys/my_key.priv \ \
    sawtooth.consensus.algorithm.version=0.1 -o config.batch


    The and sawtooth.consensus.algorithm.version settings are required; sawadm genesis will fail if they are not present in one of the batches, unless the --ignore-required-settings flag is used.

  4. As the sawtooth user, combine the previously created batches into a single genesis batch that will be committed in the genesis block.

    user@validator$ sudo -u sawtooth sawadm genesis config-genesis.batch config.batch
    Processing config-genesis.batch...
    Processing config.batch...
    Generating /var/lib/sawtooth/genesis.batch


    The -u sawtooth option refers to the sawtooth user, not the sawtooth command.

Step 5: Start the Validator

Use the same terminal window as the previous step.

  1. As the sawtooth user, start a validator that listens locally on the default ports.

    user@validator$ sudo -u sawtooth sawtooth-validator -vv


    See sawtooth-validator in the CLI Command Reference for information on the sawtooth-validator options.

    The validator terminal window displays verbose log messages. The output will be similar to this truncated example:

    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.909 INFO     cli] sawtooth-validator (Hyperledger Sawtooth) version 1.0.1
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.909 INFO     path] Skipping path loading from non-existent config file: /etc/sawtooth/path.toml
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.910 INFO     validator] Skipping validator config loading from non-existent config file: /etc/sawtooth/validator.toml
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.911 INFO     keys] Loading signing key: /home/username/.sawtooth/keys/my_key.priv
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.912 INFO     cli] config [path]: config_dir = "/etc/sawtooth"; config [path]: key_dir = "/etc/sawtooth/keys"; config [path]: data_dir = "/var/lib/sawtooth"; config [path]: log_dir = "/var/log/sawtooth"; config [path]: policy_dir = "/etc/sawtooth/policy"
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.913 WARNING  cli] Network key pair is not configured, Network communications between validators will not be authenticated or encrypted.
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.914 DEBUG    core] global state database file is /var/lib/sawtooth/merkle-00.lmdb
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.929 DEBUG    genesis] genesis_batch_file: /var/lib/sawtooth/genesis.batch
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.930 DEBUG    genesis] block_chain_id: not yet specified
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.931 INFO     genesis] Producing genesis block from /var/lib/sawtooth/genesis.batch
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.932 DEBUG    genesis] Adding 1 batches
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.934 DEBUG    executor] no transaction processors registered for processor type sawtooth_settings: 1.0
    [2018-03-14 15:53:34.936 INFO     executor] Waiting for transaction processor (sawtooth_settings, 1.0)

    Note that the validator is waiting for the Settings transaction processor (sawtooth_settings) to start.

The validator terminal window will continue to display log messages as you complete this procedure.


If you want to stop the validator, enter CTRL-c in the validator terminal window. For more information, see Step 14: Stop Sawtooth Components.

Step 6: Start the Devmode Consensus Engine

  1. Open a new terminal window (the consensus terminal window). In this procedure, the prompt user@consensus$ shows the commands that should be run in this window.

  2. Run the following command to start the Devmode consensus engine that decides what block to add to a blockchain.

    user@consensus$ sudo -u sawtooth devmode-engine-rust -vv --connect tcp://localhost:5050

    The consensus terminal window displays verbose log messages showing the Devmode engine connecting to and registering with the validator. The output will be similar to this example:

    [2019-01-09 11:45:07.807 INFO     handlers] Consensus engine registered: Devmode 0.1
    DEBUG | devmode_rust::engine | Min: 0 -- Max: 0
    INFO  | devmode_rust::engine | Wait time: 0
    DEBUG | devmode_rust::engine | Initializing block

Step 7: Start the REST API

The REST API allows you to configure a running validator, submit batches, and query the state of the distributed ledger.

  1. Open a new terminal window (the rest-api terminal window). In this procedure, the prompt user@rest-api$ shows the commands that should be run in this window.

  2. Run the following command to start the REST API and connect to the local validator.

    user@rest-api$ sudo -u sawtooth sawtooth-rest-api -v


    See sawtooth-rest-api in the CLI Command Reference for information on the sawtooth-rest-api options.

    The output is similar to this example:

    Connecting to tcp://localhost:4004
    [2018-03-14 15:55:29.509 INFO     rest_api] Creating handlers for validator at tcp://localhost:4004
    [2018-03-14 15:55:29.511 INFO     rest_api] Starting REST API on
    ======== Running on ========
    (Press CTRL+C to quit)

The rest-api terminal window continues display log messages as you complete this procedure.

Step 8: Start the Transaction Processors

In this step, you will open a new terminal window for each transaction processor.

  1. Start the Settings transaction processor, settings-tp.

    1. Open a new terminal window (the settings terminal window). The prompt user@settings-tp$ shows the commands that should be run in this window.

    2. Run the following command:

      user@settings$ sudo -u sawtooth settings-tp -v


      See settings-tp in the CLI Command Reference for information on the settings-tp options.

    3. Check the validator terminal window to confirm that the transaction processor has registered with the validator, as shown in this example log message:

      [2018-03-14 16:00:17.223 INFO     processor_handlers] registered transaction processor: connection_id=eca3a9ad0ff1cdbc29e449cc61af4936bfcaf0e064952dd56615bc00bb9df64c4b01209d39ae062c555d3ddc5e3a9903f1a9e2d0fd2cdd47a9559ae3a78936ed, family=sawtooth_settings, version=1.0, namespaces=['000000']

    The settings-tp transaction processor continues to run and to display log messages in its terminal window.


    At this point, you can see the authorized keys setting that was proposed in Step 4: Create the Genesis Block. To see this setting, open a new terminal window (the client terminal window) and run the following command:

    user@client$ sawtooth settings list Devmode
    sawtooth.consensus.algorithm.version: 0.1 0276023d4f7323103db8d8683a4b7bc1eae1f66...
  2. Start the IntegerKey transaction processor, intkey-tp-python.

    1. Open a new terminal window (the intkey terminal window). The prompt user@intkey$ shows the commands that should be run in this window.

    2. Run the following command:

      user@intkey$ sudo -u sawtooth intkey-tp-python -v
      [23:07:57 INFO    core] register attempt: OK


      For information on the intkey-tp-python options, run the command intkey-tp-python --help.

    3. Check the validator terminal window to confirm that the transaction processor has registered with the validator. A successful registration event produces the following output:

      [2018-03-14 15:56:35.255 INFO     processor_handlers] registered transaction processor: connection_id=94d1aedfc2ba0575a0e4b4f06be7ff7875703f18817027b463b3772ce2b963adb9902f7ed0bafa50201e6845015f65bac814302bdafbcda6e6698fe1733b9411, family=intkey, version=1.0, namespaces=['1cf126']

    The intkey-tp-python transaction processor continues to run and to display log messages in its terminal window.

  3. (Optional) Start the XO transaction processor, xo-tp-python. This transaction processor will be used in a later tutorial.

    1. Open a new terminal window (the xo terminal window). The prompt user@xo$ shows the commands that should be run in this window.

    2. Run the following command:

      user@xo$ sudo -u sawtooth xo-tp-python -v


      For information on the xo-tp-python options, run the command xo-tp-python --help.

    3. Check the validator terminal window to confirm that the transaction processor has registered with the validator.

      [2018-03-14 16:04:18.706 INFO     processor_handlers] registered transaction processor: connection_id=c885e99a11724e04e7da4ee426ee00d4af2cb54b67bf2fbd2f57e862bf28fa2c759a0d0978573782369659124797cc6f38d41bfde2469fe69e7e48dc1fadf5a9, family=xo, version=1.0, namespaces=['5b7349']

    The xo-tp-python transaction processor continues to run and to display log messages in its terminal window.

Step 9: Open a Client Terminal Window

Open a new terminal window to use as the client terminal window.

In the following steps, the prompt user@client$ shows the commands that should be run in this window.

Step 10: Check the REST API Process

  1. Run the following command in the client terminal window:

    user@client$ ps aux | grep [s]awtooth-rest-api
    sawtooth  2829  0.0  0.3  55756  3980 pts/0    S+   19:36   0:00 sudo -u sawtooth sawtooth-rest-api -v
    sawtooth  2830  0.0  3.6 221164 37520 pts/0    Sl+  19:36   0:00 /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/sawtooth-rest-api -v
  2. If necessary, restart the REST API (see Step 7: Start the REST API).

Step 11: Confirm Connectivity to the REST API (for Ubuntu)

If the curl command is installed on your host system, you can use this step to verify that you can connect to the REST API.

  1. Open a new terminal window on your host system and run this curl command:

    user@host$ curl http://localhost:8008/blocks

    If the validator and REST API are running and reachable, the output for each command should be similar to this example:

      "data": [
          "batches": [],
          "header": {
            "batch_ids": [],
            "block_num": 0,
            "mconsensus": "R2VuZXNpcw==",
            "previous_block_id": "0000000000000000",
            "signer_public_key": "03061436bef428626d11c17782f9e9bd8bea55ce767eb7349f633d4bfea4dd4ae9",
            "state_root_hash": "708ca7fbb701799bb387f2e50deaca402e8502abe229f705693d2d4f350e1ad6"
          "header_signature": "119f076815af8b2c024b59998e2fab29b6ae6edf3e28b19de91302bd13662e6e43784263626b72b1c1ac120a491142ca25393d55ac7b9f3c3bf15d1fdeefeb3b"
      "head": "119f076815af8b2c024b59998e2fab29b6ae6edf3e28b19de91302bd13662e6e43784263626b72b1c1ac120a491142ca25393d55ac7b9f3c3bf15d1fdeefeb3b",
      "link": "http://localhost:8008/blocks?head=119f076815af8b2c024b59998e2fab29b6ae6edf3e28b19de91302bd13662e6e43784263626b72b1c1ac120a491142ca25393d55ac7b9f3c3bf15d1fdeefeb3b",
      "paging": {
        "start_index": 0,
        "total_count": 1

    If the validator process or the validator container is not running, the curl command will time out or return nothing.

Step 12: Use Sawtooth Commands as a Client

Sawtooth includes commands that act as a client application. This step describes how to use the intkey and sawtooth commands to create and submit transactions, display blockchain and block data, and examine global state data.


Use the --help option with any Sawtooth command to display the available options and subcommands.

Continue to use the client terminal window to run the commands in this step.

Creating and Submitting Transactions with intkey

The intkey command creates sample IntegerKey transactions for testing purposes.

  1. Use intkey create_batch to prepare batches of transactions that set a few keys to random values, then randomly increment and decrement those values. These batches are saved locally in the file batches.intkey.

    user@client$ intkey create_batch --count 10 --key-count 5
    Writing to batches.intkey...
  2. Use intkey load to submit the batches to the validator.

    user@client$ intkey load -f batches.intkey
    batches: 11 batch/sec: 141.7800162868952
  3. The validator terminal window displays many log messages showing that the validator is handling the submitted transactions and processing blocks, as in this truncated example:

    78c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a)^[[0m
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.621 INFO     chain] Starting block validation of : 60c0c348a00cde622a3664d6d4fb949736b78f8bcb6b77bd0300cdc7675ca9d4116ee23ec18c7cfee5978c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a)
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.646 INFO     chain] Comparing current chain head 'f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a (block_num:12, state:c30ed78dde19d9ff58587a8bdd4aa435e09212cd1fee3e95d88faafe44f207cc, previous_block_id:dc98ce9029e6e3527bca18060cbb1325b545054b1589f2df7bf200fb0a09d0572491a3837dea1baf2981f5a960bd108f198806c974efcb3b69d2712809cc6065)' against new block '60c0c348a00cde622a3664d6d4fb949736b78f8bcb6b77bd0300cdc7675ca9d4116ee23ec18c7cfee5978c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a)'
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.647 INFO     chain] Fork comparison at height 13 is between - and 60c0c348
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.647 INFO     chain] Chain head updated to: 60c0c348a00cde622a3664d6d4fb949736b78f8bcb6b77bd0300cdc7675ca9d4116ee23ec18c7cfee5978c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a)
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.648 INFO     publisher] Now building on top of block: 60c0c348a00cde622a3664d6d4fb949736b78f8bcb6b77bd0300cdc7675ca9d4116ee23ec18c7cfee5978c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a)
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.649 DEBUG    chain] Verify descendant blocks: 60c0c348a00cde622a3664d6d4fb949736b78f8bcb6b77bd0300cdc7675ca9d4116ee23ec18c7cfee5978c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a) ([])
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.651 INFO     chain] Finished block validation of: 60c0c348a00cde622a3664d6d4fb949736b78f8bcb6b77bd0300cdc7675ca9d4116ee23ec18c7cfee5978c295614594319ece3fac71145c05ca36fadc3bd6e65 (block_num:13, state:addbd88bc80ecb05793750b7c80b91588043a1287cd8d4b6e0b1e6a68a0e4017, previous_block_id:f4323dfc238938db834aa5d40b4e6c2825bf7eae5cdaf73a9da28cb308a765707e85ac06e72b01e3d7d529132329b55b18d0cc71ab026506edd63bc6b718e80a)
  4. The rest-api terminal window displays a log message as it communicates with the intkey transaction processor.

    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.587 INFO     helpers] POST /batches HTTP/1.1: 202 status, 1639 size, in 0.030922 s
  5. You can also look at the Sawtooth log files to see what happened. Use the following command to display the last 10 entries in the intkey log file, which show that values have been changed.

    user@client$ sudo bash -c "tail -10 /var/log/sawtooth/intkey-*-debug.log"
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.587 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.588 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] incrementing "MvRznE" by 1
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.624 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.625 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] incrementing "iJWCRq" by 5
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.629 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.630 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] incrementing "vJJL1N" by 8
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.634 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.636 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] incrementing "vsTbBo" by 4
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.639 [MainThread] core DEBUG] received message of type: TP_PROCESS_REQUEST
    [2018-03-14 16:24:49.641 [MainThread] handler DEBUG] incrementing "MvRznE" by 1


    The log file names for the transaction processors contain a random string that is unique for each instance of the transaction processor. For more information, see Step 13: Examine Sawtooth Logs.

Submitting Transactions with sawtooth batch submit

In the example above, the intkey create_batch command created the file batches.intkey. Rather than using intkey load to submit these transactions, you could use sawtooth batch submit to submit them.

  1. As before, create a batch of transactions.

    user@client$ intkey create_batch --count 10 --key-count 5
    Writing to batches.intkey...
  2. Submit the batch file with the following command:

    user@client$ sawtooth batch submit -f batches.intkey
    batches: 11,  batch/sec: 216.80369536716367

Viewing Blockchain and Block Data with sawtooth block

The sawtooth block command displays information about the blocks stored on the blockchain.

  1. Use sawtooth block list to display the list of blocks stored in state.

    user@client$ sawtooth block list

    The output includes the block ID, as in this example:

    NUM  BLOCK_ID                                                                                                                          BATS  TXNS  SIGNER
    61   9566426220751691b7463e3c1ec1d8c4f158c98e89722672721d457182cb3b3d48e734ddceabf706b41fc3e1f8d739451f7d70bd5a8708bc4085b6fb33b40bef  1     4     020d21...
    60   309c0707b95609d4ebc2fad0afd590ec40db41680a3edbbeb0875720ed59f4d775e1160a2c6cbe2e9ccb34c4671f4cd7db1e5ed35a2ed9a0f2a2c99aa981f83c  1     5     020d21...
    59   e0c6c29a9f3d1436e4837c96587ae3fa60274991efa9d0c9000d53694cd2a0841914b2f362aa05c2385126288f060f524bac3a05850edb1ac1c86f0c237afdba  1     3     020d21...
    58   8c67a1ec68bfdd5b07bb02919019b917ed26dbc6ec0fc3de15d539538bd30f8a1aa58795578970d2e607cd63cf1f5ef921476cbc0564cbe37469e5e50b72ecf2  1     3     020d21...
    57   879c6cb43e244fb7c1676cf5d9e51ace25ad8e670f37e81b81e5d9e133aebba80282913677821c14fe2ccb2aae631229bdd044222e6a8927f4f5dabb6d62c409  1     4     020d21...
    5    dce0921531472a8f9840e256c585917dfc22b78c5045a3416ed76faf57232b065b8be5a34023e8a8cdab74ab24cf029a5c1051f742b9b5280b8edab5a80d805d  2     4     020d21...
    4    0007380e98fc6d63de1d47261b83186bce9722023f2e6ab6849916766e9be29f4903d76a642dfc27579b8a8bf9adba5f077c1f1457b2cad8f52a28d7079333a6  1     8     020d21...
    3    515c827b9e84c22c24838130d4e0f6af07ab271c138a61c555a830c4118a75815f54340ef3f04de009c94c3531f3202690708cf16fcfee04303972cb91e3b87a  1     10    020d21...
    2    9067bcb093bb095ca436d8868914ecf2630215d36bfd78b0b167554c544b9842193dd309f135e6959a664fe34b06b4f16a297528249550821cda9273291ebe70  1     5     020d21...
    1    3ab950b2cd370f26e188d95ee97268965732768080ca1adb71759e3c1f22d1ea19945b48fc81f5f821387fde355349f87096da00a4e356408b630ab80576d3ae  1     5     020d21...
    0    51a704e1a83086372a3c0823533881ffac9479995289902a311fd5d99ff6a32216cd1fb9883a421449c943cad8604ce1447b0f6080c8892e334b14dc082f91d3  1     1     020d21...
  2. From the output generated by sawtooth block list, copy the ID of a block you want to view, then paste it in place of {BLOCK_ID} in the following command:

    user@client$ sawtooth block show {BLOCK_ID}

    The output of this command can be quite long, because it includes all data stored under that block. This is a truncated example:

    - header:
        signer_public_key: 0276023d4f7323103db8d8683a4b7bc1eae1f66fbbf79c20a51185f589e2d304ce
        - 24b168aaf5ea4a76a6c316924a1c26df0878908682ea5740dd70814e7c400d56354dee788191be8e28393c70398906fb467fac8db6279e90e4e61619589d42bf
      header_signature: a93731646a8fd2bce03b3a17bc2cb3192d8597da93ce735950dccbf0e3cf0b005468fadb94732e013be0bc2afb320be159b452cf835b35870db5fa953220fb35
      - header:
          batcher_public_key: 0276023d4f7323103db8d8683a4b7bc1eae1f66fbbf79c20a51185f589e2d304ce
          dependencies: []
          family_name: sawtooth_settings
          family_version: '1.0'
      - a93731646a8fd2bce03b3a17bc2cb3192d8597da93ce735950dccbf0e3cf0b005468fadb94732e013be0bc2afb320be159b452cf835b35870db5fa953220fb35
      block_num: 3
      consensus: RGV2bW9kZQ==
      previous_block_id: 042f08e1ff49bbf16914a53dc9056fb6e522ca0e2cff872547eac9555c1de2a6200e67fb9daae6dfb90f02bef6a9088e94e5bdece04f622bce67ccecd678d56e
      signer_public_key: 033fbed13b51eafaca8d1a27abc0d4daf14aab8c0cbc1bb4735c01ff80d6581c52
      state_root_hash: 5d5ea37cbbf8fe793b6ea4c1ba6738f5eee8fc4c73cdca797736f5afeb41fbef
    header_signature: ff4f6705bf57e2a1498dc1b649cc9b6a4da2cc8367f1b70c02bc6e7f648a28b53b5f6ad7c2aa639673d873959f5d3fcc11129858ecfcb4d22c79b6845f96c5e3

Viewing State Data with sawtooth state

The sawtooth state command lets you display state data. Sawtooth stores state data in a Merkle-Radix tree; for more information, see Global State.

  1. Use sawtooth state list to list the nodes (addresses) in state.

    user@client$ sawtooth state list

    The output will be similar to this truncated example:

    ADDRESS                                                                                                                                SIZE DATA
    1cf126ddb507c936e4ee2ed07aa253c2f4e7487af3a0425f0dc7321f94be02950a081ab7058bf046c788dbaf0f10a980763e023cde0ee282585b9855e6e5f3715bf1fe 11   b'\xa1fcCTdcH\x...
    1cf1260cd1c2492b6e700d5ef65f136051251502e5d4579827dc303f7ed76ddb7185a19be0c6443503594c3734141d2bdcf5748a2d8c75541a8e568bae063983ea27b9 11   b'\xa1frdLONu\x...
    1cf126ed7d0ac4f755be5dd040e2dfcd71c616e697943f542682a2feb14d5f146538c643b19bcfc8c4554c9012e56209f94efe580b6a94fb326be9bf5bc9e177d6af52 11   b'\xa1fAUZZqk\x...
    1cf126c46ff13fcd55713bcfcf7b66eba515a51965e9afa8b4ff3743dc6713f4c40b4254df1a2265d64d58afa14a0051d3e38999704f6e25c80bed29ef9b80aee15c65 11   b'\xa1fLvUYLk\x...
    1cf126c4b1b09ebf28775b4923e5273c4c01ba89b961e6a9984632612ec9b5af82a0f7c8fc1a44b9ae33bb88f4ed39b590d4774dc43c04c9a9bd89654bbee68c8166f0 13   b'\xa1fXHonWY\x...
    1cf126e924a506fb2c4bb8d167d20f07d653de2447df2754de9eb61826176c7896205a17e363e457c36ccd2b7c124516a9b573d9a6142f031499b18c127df47798131a 13   b'\xa1foWZXEz\x...
    1cf126c295a476acf935cd65909ed5ead2ec0168f3ee761dc6f37ea9558fc4e32b71504bf0ad56342a6671db82cb8682d64689838731da34c157fa045c236c97f1dd80 13   b'\xa1fadKGve\x...
  2. Use sawtooth state show to view state data at a specific address (a node in the Merkle-Radix database). Copy the address from the output of sawtooth state list, then paste it in place of {STATE_ADDRESS} in the following command:

    user@client$ sawtooth state show {STATE_ADDRESS}

    The output shows the bytes stored at that address and the block ID of the “chain head” that the current state is tied to, as in this example:

    DATA: "b'\xa1fcCTdcH\x192B'"
    HEAD: "0c4364c6d5181282a1c7653038ec9515cb0530c6bfcb46f16e79b77cb524491676638339e8ff8e3cc57155c6d920e6a4d1f53947a31dc02908bcf68a91315ad5"

Step 13: Examine Sawtooth Logs

By default, Sawtooth logs are stored in the directory /var/log/sawtooth. Each component (validator, REST API, and transaction processors) has both a debug log and an error log. This example shows the log files for this application development environment:

user@client$ sudo ls -1 /var/log/sawtooth


For the transaction processors, the log file names contain a random string to make the names unique. This string changes for each instance of a transaction processor. The file names on your system will be different than these examples.

For more information on log files, see Log Configuration File.

Step 14: Stop Sawtooth Components

Use this procedure if you need to stop or reset the Sawtooth environment for any reason.


This application development environment is used in later procedures in this guide. Do not stop this environment if you intend to continue with these procedures.

To stop the Sawtooth components:

  1. Stop the validator by entering CTRL-c in the validator terminal window.


    A single CTRL-c does a graceful shutdown. If you prefer not to wait, you can enter multiple CTRL-c characters to force the shutdown.

  2. Stop the Devmode consensus engine by entering a single CTRL-c in consensus terminal window.

  3. Stop the REST API by entering a single CTRL-c in REST API terminal window.

  4. Stop each transaction processor by entering a single CTRL-c in the appropriate window.

You can restart the Sawtooth components at a later time and continue working with your application development environment.

To completely reset the Sawtooth environment and start over from the beginning of this procedure, add these steps:

  • To delete the blockchain data, remove all files from /var/lib/sawtooth.

  • To delete the Sawtooth logs, remove all files from /var/log/sawtooth/.

  • To delete the Sawtooth keys, remove the key files /etc/sawtooth/keys/validator.\* and /home/yourname/.sawtooth/keys/yourname.\*.