Part of the blockchain that contains one or more operations (called transactions) and a link to the previous block.


Machine that sends requests to and receives replies from the network of Sawtooth nodes. PBFT has no direct interaction with clients; the validator bundles all client requests into blocks and sends them through the consensus API to the consensus engine.

Consensus API

Sawtooth component that abstracts consensus-related interactions between the validator and a consensus engine. The consensus API allows dynamic consensus, a feature that allows a choice of consensus for a Sawtooth network.

Consensus engine

Component that provides consensus functionality for a Sawtooth network. The consensus engine communicates with the validator through the consensus API.

Consensus seal

Proof that a block went through consensus.


See primary node.

Member node

Sawtooth node that participates in PBFT consensus. Membership is controlled by the on-chain setting sawtooth.consensus.pbft.members. Each member node is either a primary node or a secondary node.


Consensus-related information that nodes send to each other. For more information, see Consensus Messages.


Virtual or physical machine running all the components necessary for a working Sawtooth blockchain: a validator, an optional REST API, at least one transaction processor, and the PBFT consensus engine.

The original PBFT paper uses the terms server or replica instead of node.

Primary node

Node that directs the consensus process for the network. (The other nodes in the network participate as secondary nodes.) The primary node creates each block and publishes it to the network, then starts the consensus process for the block.

Secondary node

Auxiliary node used for consensus. A Sawtooth network using PBFT consensus has one primary node; all other nodes are secondary nodes.

The original PBFT paper uses the term backup instead of secondary node.

Transaction processor

Sawtooth component that validates transactions and updates state based on rules defined by the associated transaction family. (These rules specify the business logic, also called a smart contract, for the transaction processor.) For more information, see “Transaction Family Specifications” in the Hyperledger Sawtooth documentation.


Sawtooth component that is responsible for interactions with the blockchain. The validator interacts with the consensus engine through the consensus API.


The period of time when the current primary node is in charge. The view changes at regular intervals (controlled by the on-chain setting sawtooth.consensus.pbft.forced_view_change_interval), and when the primary node is deemed faulty. For more information, see View Changes: Choosing a New Primary.